C AMS measurements performed on the test samples before and after contamination and application of the proposed procedure proved its effectiveness for removal, while this was not the case when applying standard ABA protocols.

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Recognizing Van der Heyden’s unusual knack for conveying the sometimes doltish, sometimes bizarre character of peasants and Boschian grotesques, Bruegel seems to have sent many more of these compositions to that engraver.

Galle, on the other hand, in keeping with his more sober and subtle manner, excelled at compositions of a more serious nature – particularly those of deeply spiritual content, such as the Resurrection of Christ, and the Death of the Virgin (cats. In contrast, the droll figures in The Alchemistand Spes (cats.

In her essay, she argues that Bruegel’s manner of drawing evolved in connection with the particular engravers to whom he sent drawings.

For Pieter van der Heyden, who seems to have required detailed direction, Bruegel painstakingly filled in exact progressions of shading and surface textures.

Also in these cases, spectroscopic techniques were used to compare the effectiveness of the ABA and the new treatments in removing the contaminants.

Pieter Bruegel the Elder has been under a brilliant spotlight for some thirty years – a light which has faded away many traditional notions about this artist.Mechanical cleaning using traditional tools and the standard pretreatment acid-base-acid (ABA) protocol are not sufficient to remove such contaminants, while the use of organic solvents, in particular petroleum solvents and chlorine-based products, can be effective.However, the most widely used protocol, based on the Soxhlet extraction system, is very time consuming.A concentrated look at Bruegel’s drawn oeuvre, begun by Matthias Winner and the late Hans Mielke and aided by the parallel efforts of An Zwollo, Joaneath Spicer, Martin Royalton-Kisch and others, has erased from the oeuvre significant groups of drawings.In turn, this has helped to reconstitute the work of other mid- to late-sixteenth-century artists who made landscapes and figure studies.Further, contextual and interpretative studies, such as those of Margaret A.